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Molybdenum carbide is a gray hexagonal crystal with a high melting point (2692 degC) and hardness. Its high thermal and mechanical stability makes it a suitable material for various applications.
Synthesis: Soft chemistry allows for synthesis of molybdenum carbides in liquid-phase systems with a variety of carbon sources. Often, organic compounds are used as reducing agents to form molybdenum salts or gels that can be sintered in an inert atmosphere. This type of synthesis is also known as sol-gel-like synthesis, which is a relatively simple and inexpensive method to produce carbides.
Carbide phase composition: The crystalline structure of molybdenum carbide can be influenced by the content of the reducing agent in the process, and a wide range of stoichiometric ratios can be achieved. Moreover, the specific surface area of molybdenum carbide can vary depending on the liquid-phase carbon source.
Physical properties: The chemical and structural properties of molybdenum carbide are well-known and can be studied using X-ray diffraction, magnetic susceptibility, Raman spectroscopy, and other analytical techniques. It has high heat resistance and a high hardness, as well as excellent thermal and mechanical stability, which is ideal for use in refractory coatings, abrasion-resistant wear applications, and as a refractory additive for compound materials and alloys.
Electrocatalytic behavior: Molybdenum carbide shows excellent catalytic performance in a number of hydrogen-phase reactions, such as selective isomerization of hydrocarbons and ammonia synthesis. In addition, molybdenum carbide exhibits good activity in gas-phase reactions such as hydrodeoxygenation of phenols and nitroaromatics, water-gas shift reaction, and desulfurization.