Silicon Polycrystalline

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silicon polycrystalline is the most commonly used material for semiconductors and solar panels. It is extremely pure, typically nine out of eleven (9s) – or 99.999999999% – and provides an excellent starting point for the fabrication of all types of microelectronic devices. It is also the most economical source of silicon available.

In the microelectronic industry (semiconductor industry), polysilicon is used at the macro-scale – the raw material entering a process for growing single crystals – and at the component level – the conducting gate material in MOSFET and CMOS processing technologies. Polysilicon is usually deposited using low-pressure chemical-vapor deposition (LPCVD) reactors and heavily N or P-doped.

This is because of its crystalline structure which consists of many silicon grains, or crystals, each containing millions of atoms. This contrasts with amorphous silicon which has no discernible order at the atomic scale. In general, the smaller the grain size in a crystalline silicon structure, the better the performance.

Large-area crystalline silicon is grown by heating the precursor amorphous silane under controlled temperature gradients to above its melting point and then allowing it to recrystallize as it cools. This is referred to as the Czochralski or Bridgeman process. Smaller-area crystalline silicon can be produced by laser crystallization – a technique which involves firing short, high-intensity ultraviolet laser pulses onto a thin film of amorphous silane to heat it up above its melting point and then allowing it cool. The process can be further refined to produce polycrystalline silicon with a particular grain size and orientation.