Graphite Properties, Applications and Optical features.

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Like diamonds graphite is also a natural form of carbon crystals. Its atoms are arranged in a hexagonal opaque structure ranging from deep red to dark black. It is found as hexagonal crystals. It can appear earthy, granular or compact. Graphite can be formed through the metamorphism or carbonaceous deposits, and by reacting carbon compounds with hydrothermal liquids. It occurs naturally in this state and is the stablest form of carbon when under standard conditions. Diamonds can be formed under high temperatures and pressure. It has a very different appearance than a real diamond and is on the other side of the hardness spectrum. Its flexibility comes from the way that the carbon atoms have been bonded together. Six carbon atoms form a plate with a horizontal spacing. The atoms in the ring are very strongly bound, but the bonds between the thin plate are weak. It is used to make pencils and for lubricants. Due to its high conductivity, it is useful in electronic products like batteries, solar cells, and electrodes.

Chemical Properties

Chemical Classification Native element
Formula C

Graphite Physical Properties

Color Steel gray and black
Streak Black
Luster Metallic and sometimes earthy
Cleavage Perfect in one direction
Diaphaneity Opaque
Mohs hardness One to two
Crystal System Hexagonal
Tenacity Flexible
Density 2.09 – 2.23 g/cm3 (Measured) 2.26 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Fracture Micaceous

Graphite Optical properties

Anisotropism Extreme
Color / Pleochroism Strong
Optic Sign Uniaxial ()
Birefringence extreme birefringence

The appearance and use of graphite
The reduction of carbon compounds causes the degradation of deposits containing carbon. It is the primary component in igneous stones. This occurs due to the reduction sedimentary carbon compound in metamorphic rock. Also, it can be found in meteorites and magmatic rocks. Quartz, calcite mica and tourmaline are minerals that belong to this group. The main mineral exporters are China, Mexico Canada Brazil Madagascar.

Synthetic graphite
Synthetic graphite consists of graphitic (carbon) carbon. It is produced by CVD, at temperatures above 2500 K., either through the decomposition or supersaturation of carbides.

Synthetic graphite and “artificial graphite”, both terms are often used interchangeably. Synthetic graphite is more preferred due to the fact that their crystals are believed to be composed of macromolecules of carbon. The term CVD is also used to describe carbide residues, pyrolytic and synthetic graphite. The definition is the same for this common usage. Acheson and electrophotography are two of the most important synonyms for synthesized graphite.

The Applied Area
Natural graphite has many uses, such as refractory, batteries and steelmaking. It is also used for brake pads, expanded graphite or casting surfaces, lubricants, brake pad, etc.
The graphite used in crucibles was very large, but the graphite required for carbon-magnesia bricks was not as large. These and other products now have greater flexibility in the size of flake graphite required.
Graphite use in batteries has grown over the last 30 Years. In the major battery technologies, both natural and synthetic materials may be used for electrodes.
The lithium-ion battery used in the new car, for instance, contains almost 40 kilograms of graphite.
The main use of natural graphite for steelmaking is to increase carbon content in the molten steel. It can be used also to lubricate extrusion moulds.
The use of natural amorphous flake and fine flakes graphite for brake linings on heavy (non automotive) vehicles is increasing as asbestos needs to be replaced.
Foundries clean molds with amorphous, thin flake like coatings. If you paint it inside the mold then let it air dry, it will leave behind a fine graphite layer that helps to separate the castings after the molten steel has cooled.

Applications of synthetic graphite
The highest quality of synthetic graphite, High Focus Pyrolytic (HOPG), is HOPG. In scientific research it is used to calibrate scanners and scanning probe microscopes.
The electrodes melt scrap steel and iron in electric arc kilns (most steel furnaces) and, sometimes, direct reduced iron. The mixture of coal tar and petroleum coke is used to make them.
Graphite Carbon electrodes are also employed in electrolytic aluminium smelting. Synthetic electrodes are used at a small scale in the discharge (EDM) process for making plastic injection moulds.
Special grades, such as the gilsocarbon graphite, can be utilized as a matrix or neutron moderator for nuclear reactors. In the recommended fusion-reactor, it is recommended that low-cross section neutron graphite be used.
The carbon nanotubes can also be found in heat-resistant composites, such as the reinforced carbon-carbon material (RCC). Commercial structures made from carbon fiber graphite materials include golf shafts, bicycle frame, sports car body panels and the body panel of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner.
To prevent static build-up, modern smokeless powders have a graphite coating.
At least three different radar-absorbing materials contain it. Sumpf, Schornsteinfeger and rubber are mixed to form U-shaped Snorkels. This reduces the radar cross-section. The F-117 Nighthawk floor tiles were also used for secretly hitting fighter jets.
Graphite Composites are used in the LHC beam collection as high-energy particle absorbers.
Graphite Recycling
The most common way to recover graphite occurs when synthetic graphite electrodes are made and then cut up into small pieces, or are discarded by turning them on a lathe. Or when the electrodes have been used all the way down to the electrode holders. The most common method of graphite recovery is to replace the old electrodes by new electrodes. However, the majority still exists. After crushing and sizing the graphite, it is primarily used to increase carbon content in molten steel. Some refractories contain refractory material, but these are not usually caused by graphite. For example, the bulk materials (such a carbon magnesia containing only 15 to 25 percent graphite), usually contain little graphite. Carbon magnesite can be recovered.

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