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graphite nanoparticles are carbon materials that exhibit remarkable physical, chemical and optical properties. Graphene, carbon nanotubes and fluorescent carbon quantum dots are all graphite-based materials that have attracted significant interest in science and engineering due to their extraordinary physical, optical, mechanical, and electrical properties.
Graphene is the thinnest two-dimensional material comprised of a one-atom thick planar sheet of sp2-bonded carbon atoms. Graphene has extraordinary electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties and is very flexible, allowing it to be manipulated into various shapes. Graphene also exhibits unusually high surface areas, resulting in exceptional lubrication, and outstanding thermal conductivity.
High temperature resistance, excellent shock resistance, and low weight loss at high temperatures are also desirable characteristics for a variety of uses. Graphite has been used as a marking material (“lead”) in pencils, crucibles for steelmaking and glass-making, brake linings, foundry facings, and as brushes and electrodes for electric motors.
Electrochemical applications for carbonaceous graphite include the production of screen-printed electrodes suitable for cytoplasmic membrane biosensors. In a recent study Shumyantseva et al, demonstrated the ability of gold-graphite-coated Ni-nanoparticles to enhance the observed reduction current in aerobic CV scans for the cholesterol biomarker CYP2B4. These results suggest that the rough electrode surface provided by graphite-coated metallic nanoparticles allows for more intimate electrochemical contact with the enzyme CYP2B4 and may result in improved signal to noise ratios.
Equimolar mixtures of graphene and iron oxide nanoparticles were subjected to mechanochemical activation via ball milling. Mossbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the phase sequence of the resulting products. For low milling times the series with hematite (Fe2O3) was fitted with 2 sextets that correspond to hematite with carbon introduced in its lattice, and for higher milling times the magnetite (Fe3O4) series exhibited an additional broad sextet with hyperfine parameters characteristic of iron carbides and a doublet that could be assigned to carbon clusters containing iron.